Regional Poultry Farm, Rajabarihat, Rajshashi.
Govt. of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh
Men’s can get financial benefit from those kinds of birds and the birds reproduce with the care of man is called poultry. Chickens, ducks, geese, Guinea fowl, pigeon, turkeys etc. are generally considered as poultry birds.
On the other hand details knowledge on proper reproduction of duck and hen, egg hatchling in natural and artificial methods, proper care of chickens, appropriate chicken house made methods, nutritional food, diseases prevention, product of poultry etc management is called poultry science.
Now days, poultry farms are playing very important roles in the economy of our country. So to acquire knowledge on poultry farming we went to the Regional Poultry farm, Rajabarihat, Rajshashi. The information we have collected by exchanging thoughts with the staffs of the farm have been included in this report.
The farm was established in 1981 by the attempt of Government acquiring land from Rajshahi Dairy and Cattle Improvement Farm. Then the farm was named as Regional Poultry Farm, Rajabarihat, Rajshashi. Production started by this farm in 1984 – 1985 sessions. In 1986 Hatchery started as a test case. Regional Poultry Farm also present in Chittagong, Dhaka.
Total area of Regional Poultry Farm, Rajabarihat, Rajshahi is 15 acres out of which 5 acres have some constructions (office buildings, house buildings, sheds, hatchery, store rooms etc.), 1.5 acres have ponds, 3.5 acres have tree lands and rest are unused.
Aims and objectives of the farm
1. The first and foremost aim is the production of layers.
2. Supply eggs to general mass to hatch chicks.
3. One day old chicken is distributed to very poor, poor, job less young youth.
4. Fulfillment the demand of protein producing flesh and eggs.
5. Create employment opportunities.
6. Income generating job.
Systematic Position of hen:
Phylum : Chordata
Class : Aves
Order : Galliformes
Family : Phasianidae
Genus : Gallus
Species : Gallus domesticus
Sectors of the farm and activities
Activities of the farm are revolved by four main sectors-
1) General sector
a) This sector controls the working parameters of different clerks and officers.
b) The sector also controls the accounts, keeps farm records and communicates with the Government.
2) Fodder branch
a) This sector is appointed for collecting food and supplying it to fowls regularly.
3) Shed sector
a) The sector is responsible for taking care of fowls including medical care.
4) Hatchery section
a) Function of this sector is hatching of eggs.
Rearing unit also present in Chapai Nababgong, Pabna, Sirajgong, Dianajpur, Kurigram.
Poultry Breeds and number
The farm has three breeds of fowls- Mother Stock or Red Island Rhode (RIR), Faomi and Sonali. Origin of RIR is America and Faomi is Misor. Faomi is like Bangladeshi hen. It is imported from Pakistan. So it is familiar with ‘Pakistani breed’. On the other hand RIR is like ‘Broilar’. Sonali is the crossbreed of RIR Cock and Faomi Hen. Demand of layers is more than broilers and the farm produces these layers (Sonali) only for sale. In 2010 the total number of chickens was 4000 out of which RIR was 546, Faomi was 2810 and Sonali was 664. Production of eggs in this farm is 1700-1800 per day. It is targeted by the Govt. that one hen may lay 180 eggs per year. The ratio of hen and cock is 9:1. Production depends on the sound management of water, hygiene, food, medicine, liter etc.
Faomi starts laying eggs at five and half months. Hens are stay in the farm more one year from laying eggs time. The hen is sold after production rate is below 50%.
Characteristics of Sonali
1. Colour of body feather is redish,
2. Colour of feather near the neck is pinkish,
3. High productivity of eggs,
4. Can be reared in farm or in free range, etc.
Identification of layers and non-layers
|1.||Comb||Large, red, full, glossy||Small, pale, scaly|
|3.||Vent||Large, dilated, oblong, moist||Small, contracted, round, dry|
Differential points between cock and hen
|1.||Sickle feather present||Sickle feather absent|
|2.||Hackle feather||Neck feather|
|3.||Spur is prominent||Spur is rudimentary|
|4.||Comb, wattles and ear lobes are prominent||Comb, wattles and ear lobes are not prominent|
|5.||Main tail feather is absent||Main tail feather is present|
|6.||Voice a cock-crows||Voice a hen cackle|
|7.||Comparatively larger in size in same age||Comparatively smaller in size in same age|
List of foods of a fowl
A hen needs 120g foods per day. The percentages of different food items supplied to fowl of different ages are listed as follows-
|Serial no.||Food items||Percentages for adult and moderate sized of fowl||Percentages for chicks|
|4.||Fish meal (protein)||10.5%||12%|
|5.||Slime stone||12%||Very few|
|6.||Salt||2%||As for need|
The farm has eight sheds for rearing chickens out of which a shed is for springs and growers and the rests sevens are for layer stocks or mother stocks.
Incubation is a process by which eggs are hatched for offspring.
Advantage of artificial incubation
1) Large number of eggs can be hatched at a time.
2) Due to human control, eggs can be hatched at any time throughout the year.
3) Temperature, humidity and ventilation could be controlled as per requirement of the incubation process.
4) An incubator can be used for longer time.
5) The percent of hatchability is high.
6) Prevention and control of diseases is easier.
Disadvantage of artificial incubation
1) Skilled manpower is not always available to handle the incubator.
2) Irregular supply of electricity cause low hatchability.
3) Constant supervision by man is needed until hatching.
Factors affecting artificial incubation
There are four factors of major importance in incubating eggs artificially-
1. Temperature: Maintenance of proper temperature is of prime importance for good hatchabilities of fertile eggs. Depending on the type of incubation, optimum temperature ranges from 99˚-103˚F.
2. Humidity: Humidity is of great importance for normal development of chicken embryo. Although a variation of 5-10 percent is acceptable, the relative humidity of the air within an incubator for the first 187 days should be about 60%. During the last 3 days of the hatching period, it should be nearer 70%. Lower humidity causes excess evaporation of water while high humidity prevents the evaporation of sufficient amounts of water from the eggs.
3. Egg turning: The embryo head must occupy a position in the large end of the egg for proper hatching. Eggs should be turned from three to five times a day between the second and eighteenth day. Turning the eggs prevents an adhesion between the cushion and shell membrane.
4. Oxygen utilization: As the embryo develops, it uses oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide. Thus sufficient ventilation within the incubator is required to assess an adequate supply of oxygen and the proper removal of carbon dioxide. The best hatching results are obtained with 21% oxygen in the air- the normal oxygen level in the atmosphere. The embryo will tolerate a carbon dioxide level of 0.5%, but it will die if this level reaches 5%.
Hatchery of the farm
The farm has a hatchery with a setting capacity of thousands of eggs. Fowl needs 21 days for hatching. So eggs are kept in the hatchery for 21 days out of which in Setter for 18 days at 100˚F and in the Hatcher for 3 days at 99˚F of temperature to soften the shell of eggs by humidity. Proper humidity in the hatchery is 75 – 77%. And after 21 days, chicks easily come out breaking down the shell of eggs. From this hatchery the farm produces of about 2500 to 2600 chicks/spring chickens in a week.
Selection and care of hatching eggs
The factors affecting the selection and care of hatching eggs are as follows:
1. Egg size: The size of the eggs used for hatching is important because there is a high correlation between the size of eggs used and the size of the chicks hatched. Neither small sized egg nor very big sized should be selected. It is always desirable to select eggs approximately 58 gm each. Eggs in which the portion of white to yolk is about 2:1 usually hatch better than eggs having wider or narrow ratios. Abnormal shaped eggs should always be discarded.
2. Shell texture: When shell texture is poor due to deficiency of calcium or vitamin D the result, of course, is associated with low hatchability, otherwise the mottled appearance of the egg shell as observed by candling does not appear to be related to hatching results.
3. Cracked shells: All eggs should be tested for cracked shells, and this can be done quite readily by trapping two eggs together. If there is resonant sound, both eggs are sound in shell; but if there is dull sound, one of the eggs is cracked and should not be used for incubation.
4. Tremulous air cells: Care should be taken in delivering eggs to a hatchery to avoid excessive shaking which sometimes results in a condition known as ‘tremulous air cells’ a condition that tends to lower hatchability.
5. Soiled egg: Soiled eggs should not be washed in water before setting, as washing with water opens up the pores and this inter fare with the hatching results. If the dirt is excessive, it should be removed with a knife. Highly soiled eggs should not be set.
|1. Avian flu/Bird flu||A viral diseases caused by Type A influenza viruses. Avian influenza viruses exist in wild populations of seabirds, shorebirds, and other wildfowl, but do not usually cause illness in wild bird species. In winter when these wild birds come in our country and contaminate ponds and fields with fecal droppings containing the virus, however, domesticated birds can be infected. For these species, avian influenza is often fatal, afflicting the respiratory system and nervous system, and opening the way for dangerous bacterial infections. With their nasal and fecal secretions, sick individuals can rapidly spread illness to other poultry in the close confines of a farm enclosure or live animal market.|
|2. Coccidiosis||This disease is caused by obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Eimeria. The birds’ droop, cease feeding, and blood appears in the feces 3-4 days after infection.|
|3. Fowl typhoid/ Salmonellosis||A septicemic disease of domestic birds is caused by Bacillus (=Salmonella) gallinarum. The natural mode of infection is through food and water contaminated by feces of diseased and carrier birds.|
|4. Newcastle disease (Ranikhet)||This is characterized by sneezing, coughing, and nervous behaviour. Affected birds may show tremors, circling, falling, and twisting of the head and neck or complete paralysis. Mortality may range from 80 to 100%. The principal symptom is yellowish white, lime-like evil-smelling diarrhoea. A long, gasping inhalation through the opened beak is also a characteristic symptom.|
|5. Worm||When the bird is attacked by worm it losses its weight and stools white. Its egg production power is lessened. To control worm Nematosol powder is applied.|
|The farm has faced no Avian tuberculosis, Fowl cholera or Fowl pox till today.|
The farm strictly maintains bio-security. The authority restricts entrance of general mass to the farm and the staffs enter into the farm only after washing their legs with disinfectants. Last year 44 farms of our country were affected by bird’s flu and most of the farms of our country including the Savar Farm were also affected by this disease in the current year. But due to maintenance of bio-security, the Regional Poultry Farm of Rajabarihat is free from bird’s flu and any other serious diseases.
Excrement of fowl is a kind of fish feed. So it has a great use in fishery. In some cases feces is also used as fertilizer. The farm collects and sells these waste materials at a price of Tk. 140/= per quintal (100kg).
Rates of different services from this farm
Adult fowl (per piece) : Tk. 150/=
A day’s Sonali (per piece) : Tk. 12/=
Rejected live fowl (per kg) : Tk. 80/=
Eggs (per hundred) : Tk. 400/=
Excrement (per quintal) : Tk. 140/=
Domestic hen and cock are common in rural areas house of Bangladesh. But with the demand of people it is need rear the hen largely. So poultry industry plays an important role in the economy of a country. Many families of Bangladesh are actively or passively related with poultry farming. But Poultry industry faces avian flu or bird flu every year. This kind of disease destroys many farms of our country. It causes a great economic loss. Only the maintenance of bio-security like Rajabari farm may protect our farms. On the basis of total sinario of Rajabari Poultry Farm it is can say that the farm of Rajabari will play a vital role in Bangladesh economy.
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